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The Impact Of The Race To Space During Global Wars

During the twentieth century, global wars transformed the perception of science and technology. As a result, many countries recognized the need for organizing science on a unified and national front in addition to integrating scientific research with war agendas. In “The Death of Certainty”, co-authors Andrew Ede and Lesley B. Cormack refer to this phenomena as the rise of “Big Science”1.  Most scientific breakthroughs during the twentieth century came from “Big Science” or research funded by major research institutions and federal government as opposed to the contributions of individual scientists. Apart from the global wars, science became part of mainstream popular culture with the race to space. The launching of Sputnik by the Soviet Union was one of the many events that led to the popularization of science.1 Although there were deadly consequences of “Big Science” in global wars, the perception of science shifted and was popularized in the race to space.

As opposed to the development of warfare that often shrouded in secrecy, the race to space was a very public and a less esoteric demonstration of the power of science. In “The Death of Certainty”, Ede and Cormack examine the application of science in weapon versus space research:

“Development of nuclear weapons was in many ways a more complex integration of research and the demands for a ‘useful’ final product….and was presented as so advanced…that it was accessible only to geniuses. The rocket race was, in contrast, a very public demonstration of scientific prowess”.1

In the interest of national security, it is logical for nuclear weapons research to be kept secret and understood by a select few “geniuses”.1 An example of nuclear power prowess is the United States using an atomic bomb to end WWII. In “Science in the Origins of the Cold War”, Naomi Oreskes describes the consequences of this nuclear warfare: “The world would find itself in a permanent state of ‘cold war’” and “not a way of life at all in any true sense”. 2 On the other hand, the “rocket race”1 between the Soviet Union and United States led NASA to become the world’s biggest supporter of scientific research. NASA programs helped change the image of science from a destructive entity to an “adventurous and glamorous”1 field. Science was also made accessible to the general public by television news announcer Walter Cronkite who served as NASA’s voice and image.

As opposed to being a purely lethal entity, the race to space improved the reputation of science. In the context of space exploration, science was seen as a more glamorous and adventurous field. This new perception of science was fueled by NASA programming and Sputnik, which was launched by the Soviet Union. Although scientific interests within the Soviet Union, United States, and other countries during the twentieth century aligned strongly with their warfare needs, the pursuit of space exploration was perceived as a less destructive and exciting application of science.

“The Death of Certainty” and “1957: The Year the World Became a Planet,” in Andrew Ede and Lesley B. Cormack, A History of Science in Society: From Philosophy to Utility, Second Edition(Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2012), pp. 295–348.

Naomi Oreskes, “Science in the Origins of the Cold War” in Naomi Oreskes and John Krige (eds.), Science and Technology in the Global Cold War(Cambridge: The MIT Press, 2014), 11–30.

The Interplay Between The Two Cultures

In The Two Cultures, C.P. Snow discusses the dichotomy between high literary and scientific cultures. Snow also explores two subcultures within the scientific community—applied vs pure sciences. As our society becomes increasingly dependent on technology, it is imperative to facilitate a stronger connection between these two cultures and subcultures in order to dissipate knowledge to the general public. Pure scientists and applied scientists need to work cooperatively to combat long-term environmental and society issues like as global warming, proper health care and treatment, etc. However, in order to communicate these solutions and scientific research to the general public, these scientists need to be able to effectively communicate. On the flip side, the general public needs to be scientifically literate in order to understand the scientists and the underlying scientific concepts that affect modern life.

While discussing the two cultures, Snow mentions the intensiveness and often abstractness of scientific arguments. An essay written for a science course (chemistry, physics, mathematics) is more concise in length and difficult to argue against compared to an essay written in an English course. Snow explores this difference in his book:

“[Scientists] have their own culture, intensive, rigorous, and constantly in action. This culture contains a great deal of argument, usually much more rigorous, and almost always at a higher conceptual level, than literary persons’ arguments”1

A mathematical proof is analogous to an essay. The goal is often to produce the most elegant and concise set of equations that leads to a final output. Proofs require “rigorous” argumentation and a higher level of knowledge, often at an accumulative and “high conceptual level”. Depending on the topic, understanding the symbols and numerical concepts in a short proof (e.g. five lines) may take months or several years to fully understand. Literary works, on the other hand, require a different set of analytical skills. The goal of a literary essay will be to convince someone of something. Like writing a good proof, writing literary essays can take years to master, but it is a lot easier to argue against a literary essay than it is to argue against mathematical proof. In Snow’s quote above, I believe he alludes to how scientific arguments are more objective than rigorous compared to literary arguments, resulting in a big divide between the two cultures. 

Despite the differences between literary and scientific culture explored by Snow, it is clear that we need to bridge the two cultures in the coming decades. Having both scientific and literary knowledge is required to become an informed and well-rounded citizen and human being. Asking a specialized scientist “Have you read a work of Shakespeare’s?”1 is as condescending as having that scientist asking a literary scholar if he or she could explain the laws of thermodynamics. Modern technological interfaces would not exist without the help of artists, engineers (applied scientists), and and PhD students (pure scientists). Additionally, communicating these technologies to users requires communication, writing, and presentation skills. The world is becoming more interdisciplinary and specialization in only culture or field is not always necessary. Instead, a baseline understanding of the both cultures should be required.

1C.P Snow. The Two Cultures. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993).

Contextualizing The Scientific Revolution

The commonly conceived notion of the Scientific Revolution during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries is the tension between modern discoveries and methodologies against ancient traditions and practices. Many introductory science courses reflect on the contributions of Galileo, Descartes, and Newton. Their roles in establishing the distinction between religion and antiquated modes of thought and the natural sciences are no doubt, substantial. Yet, these select narratives are limited in scope and do not reflect the broader political, religious, and cultural factors affecting scientific progress. In The Scientific Revolution, Steven Shapin presents a broader context by discussing commonly undisclosed factors that shape the Revolution.

One reason why the Scientific Revolution is misconceived is due to the brevity in which students learn about the history of science. Courses typically have one or two days to go over these concepts, which glosses over two centuries worth of history. It is only in advanced coursework or independent study focusing on the Scientific Revolution that students can engage in a deeper level of analysis and inquiry. As a result, students that do not inquire about the history of science do not get a broader and deeper understanding of the myriad of contributing factors.

In the early seventeenth century, Francis Bacon believed there was a necessary to create a “catalog…of all the effects that could be observed in nature” (85), which is similar to how modern scientific organizations and standards operate today. Shapin argues the purpose of these catalogs was to provide a “register of fact…to provide the secure foundations of natural philosophy” (90). The metric system can be considered a modern example of a catalog as it is an internationally adopted decimal system of measurement used in all facets of life. Using the metric prefix system for weights, shipments of goods can be measured in a standard unit, kilogram instead of constantly converting between units. Another example is the world’s largest technical professional organization for the advancement of technology (IEEE), which has established standards for software and research development life-cycles. Many research facilities, universities, and companies adhere to the IEEE standards today. In the early seventeenth century, Francis Bacon understood the need for these catalogs, which have manifested in modern scientific organizations and standards.

Against most preconceived notions of the Scientific Revolution, modern science emerged under the influence of various intellectual and societal factors. As Shapin describes, the contributions of religion,  philosophy, and naturalism were additional factors affecting the development of scientific inquiry. Legacies of the Scientific Revolution are still apparent today in the form of internationally recognized scientific organizations and standards. Despite the importance of the Scientific Revolution, not every person will dig deeper into its complex history. Most people blindly accept and take for granted the science and technologies they depend on everyday.

Shapin, Steve. The Scientific Revolution. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1996.

Deeply Understanding Scientific Paradigms

In 1962,  Thomas Kuhn publishes his book The Structure of Scientific Revolutions where he discusses the history of science. He introduces the concept of paradigms in science as 

“practices that define a scientific discipline at certain point in time” (14).1

In other words, paradigms are commonly accepted views or theories about a discipline and the conventions that dictate its research. There are paradigms in all disciplines, like physics with Newton’s Theory of Motion and Mechanics or biology with Darwin’s Theory of Evolution by Natural Selection. In order to learn what science or technology is, it is becoming increasingly vital to experiment in order to deeply understand how certain paradigms come into existence.

It is also possible that disciplines experience paradigm shifts, which Kuhn considers to be the basis of the scientific revolution. Across time and disciplines, there have been fundamental changes in the underlying assumptions or research approaches. When David Nye, the author of Technology Matters: Questions to Live With explains tools in human history,  it is similar to the concept of a paradigm shift:

“[tools] are part of systems of mean-ing, and they express larger sequences of actions and ideas. Ultimately, the meaning of a tool is inseparable from the stories that surround it” (2-3). 2 

The “stories” and “larger sequence of actions and ideas” alludes to the evolution of meaning and usage of tools over time. Initially, tools were for capturing and domesticating animals, creating fires, and building shelters, but evolved to also become a means of murder and warfare. The history of tools can be thought of as a primitive example of a paradigm shift because there was a shift in how tools were used, from basic survive to warfare. 

In order to deeply understand the paradigms of science and technology, experimentation is key. Experimenting, however, takes various forms depending on the discipline. In physics, for example, it can involve highly specialized scientific instruments in order to derive Earth’s gravitational acceleration. In computer science, it can involve learning Swift, a computer programming language to develop a social networking mobile application. In these experiments, the experimenter does not take paradigms of science at face value, but rather more deeply understand how those concepts or technologies came to be. Gravitational acceleration is not simply 9.8m/s, its value fits within the framework of a universally applicable law known as Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation. Any mobile application does not work via magic, there are complex layers of programming languages and unique software architectures that create an working mobile application. In other words, in order to learn about science and technology, there needs to be deep inquiry on the accepted paradigms of science, not just blind acceptance.

1 Lijing Jiang, “Understanding S, T & S” (presentation, ST112 Course, Waterville, ME, September 10, 2018).
2 David Nye, Technology Matters: Questions to Live With (The MIT Press, 2007), 1–16.

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