Works Cited


Works Cited

History of Censorship

History of Ovid’s Banned Books from Antiquity to Present 

Black, Robert. “Ovid in Medieval Italy.” Ovid in the Middle Ages. Ed. Clark, James G, Frank T. Coulson, and Kathryn L. McKinley. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2011. 123 – 142. Print.

Blake, Harriet Manning. “Golding’s Ovid in Elizabethan Times.” The Journal of English and Germanic Philology 14.1 (1915): 93-95. Web.

Burrow, Colin. “Metamorphoses in The Faerie Queen.” Ovid Renewed: Ovidian Influences on Literature and Art from the Middle Ages to the Twentieth Century. Ed. Charles Martindale. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988. 99 – 119. Print.

Green, Jonathon. The Encyclopedia of Censorship. New York: Facts on File, 1990.Print.

Haight, Anne Lyon.  Banned Books: Informal Notes on Some Books Banned for Various Reasons at Various Times and in Various Places. 2nd Ed. New York: R.R. Bowker Company, 1955. Print.

Kenney, Edward John. “Ovid.” Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Encyclopedia Britannica Inc., n.d. Web. 29 October 2013.

Lerner, Laurence. “Ovid and the Elizabethans.” Ovid Renewed: Ovidian Influences on Literature and Art from the Middle Ages to the Twentieth Century. Ed. Charles Martindale. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988. 121 – 135. Print.

Martines, Lauro. Fire in the City: Savonarola and the struggle for Renaissance Florence. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006. Print.

McCabe, Richard A. “Elizabethan Satire and the Bishops’ Ban of 1599.” The Yearbook of English Studies 11 (1981): 188-193. Web.

Pairet, Ana. “Recasting the Metamorphoses in fourteenth-century France: the challenges of the Ovide Moralisé.” Ovid in the Middle Ages. Ed. Clark, James G, Frank T. Coulson, and Kathryn L. McKinley. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2011. 123 – 142. Print.


Image sources

Ettore Ferarre. Statue of Ovid in Constantza, 1887.

Bartholomaeus Merula. Ars Amatoria and Remedia Amoris, 1526Bowdoin College Special Collections and Archives.

Fra Bartolommeo di Pagholo. Portrait of Girolamo Savonarola, 1498. Museo di San Marco, Florence.

Arthur Golding. The Fifteen Books of Ovid’s Metamorphoses, 1593.

Seal of the United States Customs Service.


Banned Books and Freedom of Speech

Shuckburgh, E.S.  Augustus; the Life and times of the Founder of the Roman Empire (B.C. 63-A.D. 14). London T.F. Unwin, 1908, pp 228.

Frederick H. Cramer, “Bookburning and Censorship in Ancient Rome: A Chapter from the History of Freedom of Speech,” Journal of the History of Ideas, Vol. 6, No. 2 (Apr., 1945), pp. 157-196

Gaertner, Jan Felix. Writing Exile: The Discourse of Displacement in Greco-Roman Antiquity and beyond. Leiden: Brill, 2007.

“Gaius Cornelius Gallus (Roman Soldier and Poet).” Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Encyclopedia Britannica, n.d. Web. 29 Oct. 2013.

Grafton, Anthony, Glenn W. Most, and Salvatore Settis. ” The Classical Tradition. Cambridge, MA: Belknap of Harvard UP, 2010. Page 668.

Haarhoff, T.J. “Vergil and Cornelius Gallus,” Vlassical Philology, Vol. 55, No. 2 (April 1960) pp 101-108.

Haight, Anne Lyon., and Chandler B. Grannis. Banned Books, 387 B.C. to 1978 A.D. New York: R.R. Bowker, 1978.

Shuckburgh, Evelyn S. Augustus; the Life and times of the Founder of the Roman Empire (B.C. 63-A.D. 14). London: T.F. Unwin, 1908. Chapter XII: The Reformer and Legislator. Ineke Sluiter, Ralph Mark Rosen, Free speech in classical antiquity : [Penn-Leiden Colloquium on Ancient Values, June 2002 at the University of Pennsylvania]. BRILL, Jan 1, 2004


Image Sources

Unknown Artist, Drawing of Ovid, 1st century A.D.

Cesare Maccari, Cicero Denounces Catiline fresco, 1882-1888.

Unknown Artist, Augustus in Armor,  40 B.C. Vatican Museums, Rome.

Unknown Artist, Bust of Gaius Cornelius Gallus,  c. 30 B.C.


From Ovid to Rushdie: Ovid’s Influence on Later Literature

Alighieri, Dante, Henry Francis Cary, and Umberto Romano. The Divine Comedy,. Garden City, NY: Doubleday &, 1946. Print.

“Ayatollah sentences author to death”. BBC. 14 February 1989. Retrieved 29 December 2008.

Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911) Encyclopedia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.

Coon, Raymond Huntington. Ovid in Exile. The Classical Journal , Vol. 22, No. 5 (Feb., 1927), pp. 355-369.

Felton, D. “On Reading “Latrare” at Ovid “Met.” 7.791,” The Classical World, Vol. 95. 1 (Autumn, 2001), pp. 65-69

Freely, Maureen. Why Salman Rushdie’s Book was Burned. The Washington Post. January 9, 2011.

Ginsberg, Warren. “Dante, Ovid, and the Transformation of Metamorphosis,” Traditio 46, pp. 205-233. 1991.

Goold, G.P. The Cause of Ovid’s Exile. Illinois Classical Studies , Vol. 8, No. 1 (Spring, 1983) pp. 94-107.

Hardie, Philip R. The Cambridge Companion to Ovid. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge UP, 2002. Print.

Hede, Jesper. Reading Dante: The Pursuit of Meaning. Lanham: Lexington, 2007. Print.

Ingleheart, Jennifer. A Commentary on Ovid, Tristia Book 2. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010. pp. 450

Jacoff, Rachel. The Poetry of Allusion: Virgil and Ovid in Dante’s “Commedia.” Speculum. Vol. 68, No. 3. pp. 809-812. 1993.

Ankhi Mukherjee, “The Rushdie Cannon” in Robert Eaglestone and Martin McQuillan, eds., Salman Rushdie: Contemporary Critical Perspectives. A&C Black: London, 2013, 9-21.

Rushdie, Salman. Shame. Vintage: London, 1995

Ziogas, Ioannis. Ovid in Rushdie, Rushdie in Ovid: A Nexus of Artistic Webs. 2010.


Image Sources

del Castagno, Andrea. Dante Alighieri. Fresco. 1450.

Dore, Gustave. Transformation of Agnello. 1890. Engraving.

Dore, Gustave. Arachne. Engraving. c. 1868.

Salman Rushdie, today’s Ovid? The Times. Multimedia. October 2010.

Book Burning. BBC News. Photograph. February, 2009.

Rushdie Fatwa. February 2012 E


Ovid at Colby: Academic Censorship in the Modern Era

Colby College Course Catalogues 1824-2014. Colby College Special Collections, Miller Library, Colby College, Waterville, Maine. Print.

“Folsom’s Livy.” Book title page. 2013. Google Books. Web. Accessed 22 November 2013.

Goltzius, Henrik. “The Roman Heroes: Mucius Scaevola.” Engraving on paper. 1586. Colby Art Museum Online. Web. Accessed 22 November 2013.

Manship, Paul Howard. “Diana.” Bronze Sculpture. Colby Art Museum Online. Web. Accessed 22 November 2013.

 Anonymous. “The Future of the Classics.” The Colby Echo October 1883: 26. Volume 8, No. 2. Print.


Image Sources

Colby Snowbound Photo:

Ovid profile:

Pastoral Colby Photo:


Exile from Rome

Roman Exile

Bauman, Richard A. Crime and Punishment in Ancient Rome. London: Routledge, 1996. Print.

Braginton, Mary V. Exile Under the Roman Emperors. The Classical Journal Vol. 39, No. 7 (Apr., 1944), pp. 391-407. JSTOR

Cramer, Frederick H. “Bookburning and Censorship in Ancient Rome: A Chapter from the History of Freedom of Speech,” Journal of the History of Ideas, Vol. 6, No. 2 (Apr., 1945), pp. 157-196

Edwards, Catharine. The Politics of Immorality in Ancient Rome. Cambridge [England]: Cambridge University Press, 1993. Print.

Gaertner, Jan F. Writing Exile: The Discourse of Displacement in Greco-Roman Antiquity and Beyond. Leiden: Brill, 2007. Print.

Kelly, Gordon P. A History of Exile in the Roman Republic. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006. Print.

VerSteeg, Russ. Law in the Ancient World. Durham, N.C: Carolina Academic Press, 2002. Print.

Washburn, Daniel. Banishment in the Later Roman Empire: The Rhetoric and Realities of a Disciplinary Institution. Diss. Stanford University, 2007. Ann Arbor: ProQuest Information and Learning, 2007. Print.

Williams, Gareth D. Banished Voices: Readings in Ovid’s Exile Poetry. Cambridge [England: Cambridge University Press, 1994. Print.


Image Sources

Batoni, Pompeo. Aeneas fleeing from Troy. 1750.,_Pompeo_%E2%80%94_Aeneas_fleeing_from_Troy_%E2%80%94_1750.jpg

Crupi, Giovanni. Teatro Greco – Siracusa. c. 1900.,_Giovanni_%281849-1925%29_-_n._167_-_Teatro_Greco_-_Siracusa_-_Bis.jpg

Dioskurides of Samos. Mosaico Verdiales. Date unknown.

Ghirlandaio, Domenico. Brutus, Mucius Scaevola, and Camillus. Late fifteenth century.

Knoller, Martin. Cicero at the tomb of Archimedes. 1775.

Statue of Cicero. Ashmolean Museum, Oxford. 1st c. BCE.

Theodorescu-Sion, Ion. Ovid in Exile. 1915.

Turner, J.M.W. Ovid Banished from Rome. 1838.


Rome Sick: Ovid’s Exile

De Seta, Maria Luisa. “Aldo Luisi, Nicoletta F. Berrino, Carmen et error: nel bimillenario dell’esilio di Ovidio. Quaderni di “Invigilata Lucernis” 36..” Bryn Mawr Classical Review.

Frankel, Hermann. Ovid: A Poet Between Worlds. . Reprint, Oakland: University of California Press, 1969.

Goold, G.P., and Arthur Leslie Wheeler. Ovid: in six volumes. 2nd ed. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press ;, 1988.

Goold, G.P.. “The Cause of Ovid’s Exile.” Illinois Classical Studies 8. (accessed November 14, 2013).

Green, Peter . “Carmen et Error: πρόφασις and αἰτία in the Matter of Ovid’s Exile.” Classical Antiquity 1. (accessed October 30, 2013).

Ingleheart, Jennifer. “What the Poet Saw: Ovid, the error and the theme of sight in Tristia 2.” Materiali e discussioni per l’analisi dei testi classici 56. (accessed November 11, 2013).

Norwood, Frances. “The Riddle of Ovid’s Relegatio.” Classical Philology 58. (accessed November 20, 2013).


Image Sources

Delacroix, Eugene. The Summer: Diana Surprised by Actaeon. 1863.

Minghetti, Angelo. Bust of Tiberius. After 1849.

Moore, R. Scott. The Stemmata of the Julio-Claudian Emperors. 1999.

Paul Rubens, Peter. Agrippina and Germanicus. 1614. _Agrippina_and_Germanicus_%28National_Gallery_of_Art%29.jpg

Paul Rubens, Peter. Fall of Phaethon. 1604.

Wichmann, Kurt. Statue of Ovid in Constanta. 2008.,_Romania.jpg


Censorship in Ovid’s Myths

Philomela and Ovid

“Birds by Name.” The Royal Society for the Protection of Birds. RSPB. 19 November 2013. Web. 18 November 2013. 

Gutierrez, Nancy A. “Philomela Strikes Back: Adultery and Mutilation as Female Self-Assertion” Women’s Studies. 16.3/4(1989): 429-443. Print.

Irving, P.M.C. Forbes. Metamorphosis in Greek Myths. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1990. Print.

Johnson, Patricia J. Ovid Before Exile: Art and Punishment in the Metamorphoses. Madison: University of Wisconsin, 2010. Print.

Keuss, Jeffrey F. “Speech After Rape: Towards a Theological Poetics of Identity and Loss After Philomela’s ‘Voice of the Shuttle'” Theology & Sexuality: The Journal Of The Institute For The Study Of Christianity & Sexuality. 9.2(2003): 242-251. Print.

Marder, Elissa. “Disarticulated Voices: Feminism and Philomela” Hypatia. 7.2(1992): 148-166. Print.

Salzman-Mitchell, Patricia B. A Web of Fantasies: Gaze, Image and Gender in Ovid’s Metamorphoses. Columbus: The Ohio State University Press, 2005. Print


Images Sources


Del Piombo, Sebastiano. Tereus, Philomela, and Procne.

Henry Gosse, Philip. Nightingale, Natural History, Birds.

Jane Gardner, Elizabeth. Philomela and Procne, Art Renewal Museum.

Paul Rubens, Peter. Tereus Confronted with the Head of his Son Itys,  Prado Museum.

Tereus and Procne Surrounded by Furies, Virgil Solis, Ovid’s Metamorphoses Book VI.

The 15 Books of Ovid’s Metamorphosis Translated by Arthur Golding, printed by Jon Danter

The Rape of Philomela, Antonio Tempesta and Wilhelm Janson, Los Angeles County Museum of Art.



Diana and Actaeon

Heath, John. “Diana’s Understanding of Ovid’s Metamorphoses.” The Classical Journal. 86.3 (1980)

Ovid’s Metamorphoses Books 1-5. Editor Anderson, William S. 1997. University of Oklahoma Press.

Rearick, W. R. “Titian’s Later Mythologies.” Artibus Et Historiae 17.33 (1996): 23-67.

Tanner, Marie. “Chance and Coincidence in Titian’s Diana and Actaeon.” The Art Bulletin 56.4 (1974). <>.


Image Sources

Diana and Actaeon from a Set of Ovid’s Metamorphoses. British Tapestry Manufactory, 1876-1890. New York, NY.

Diana and Actaeon Plaquette. 1625. Bronze, gilding. Bowdoin Art Museum, Brunswick, ME.

Titian, Diana, and Acaeon. Titian. 1556-9. Oil on canvas. The National Gallery of Scotland.


Callisto and Censorship: Voice as Power

Heath, John. “Diana’s Understanding of Ovid’s “Metamorphoses”” The Classical Journal 86.3 (1991): 233-43. JSTOR. Web.

Johnson, W. R. “The Rapes of Callisto.” The Classical Journal 92.1 (1996): 9-24. JSTOR. Web.

O’Bryhim, Shawn. “Ovid’s Version of Callisto’s Punishment.” Hermes (1990): 75-80. JSTOR. Web.

Riddehough, G. B. “Man-Into-Beast Changes in Ovid.” Phoenix 13.4 (1959): 201-09. JSTOR. Web.

Wall, Kathleen. The Callisto Myth from Ovid to Atwood: Initiation and Rape in Literature. Kingston [Ont.: McGill-Queen’s UP, 1988. Print.


Image Sources

The Course of Empire: The Arcadian or Pastoral State by Thomas Cole Giovanni Antonio Pellegrini, early 18th century

Juno Turning Callisto into a Bear by Hendrik Goltzius Jupiter et Callisto by John-Baptiste Forest

Ursa Major constellation from Uranographia by Johannes Hevelius


Weaving and Writing: Censorship in Arachne

Anderson. William S. ed. Ovid’s Metamorphoses. Norman, Oklahoma: University of Oklahoma Press, 2009. Print.

Adkins, Lesley and Roy A. Adkins. Handbook to Life in Ancient Rome. Updated Edition. New York: Facts on File, Inc., 2004. Web.

Claassen, Jo-Marie. Ovid Revisited: the Poet in Exile. London: Gerald Duckworth & Co., 2008. Print.

Davis, P.J. Ovid & Augustus: a Political Reading of Ovid’s Erotic Poems. London: Gerald Duckworth & Co., 2006. Print.

Golding, Arthur and Madeleine Forey, eds. Ovid’s Metamorphoses. Baltimore, Md: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2002. Print.

Johnson, Patricia. Ovid Before Exile: Art and Punishment in the Metamorphoses.  Madison, Wisconsin: University of Wisconsin Press, 2008. Web.

Kruger, Kathryn Sullivan Weaving the word: the metaphorics of weaving and female textual production, 2001

Weiden Boyd, Barbara, ed. Brill’s Companion to Ovid. Leiden: Koninklijke Brill NV, 2002. Print.


Image Sources

Bust of Augustus Bevilacqua. 2008.

Dore, Gustave. Arachne. 1868.

Klimt, Gustav. Pallas Athena. 1898.

Paul Rubens, Peter. Pallas and Arachne. 1637.

Paul Rubens, Peter. The Rape of Europa. 1629.

Posthumus, Herman. Arachne. 1542.

William Waterhouse, John. Penelope and the Suitors. 1912.


 Daedalus, the Pierides, & Pentheus: Minor characters, Major censorship

Grant, Michael, and John Hazel. Who’s who in classical mythology. London: Routledge, 2002.

Liveley, Genevieve. Ovid’s Metamorphoses a reader’s guide. London: Continuum, 2011.


Image Sources

Ademollo, Luigi. Tiresias Dismissed by Pentheus. c. 1800.

Bruegel, Peter. The Fall of Icarus. 1595.

Daedalus, Pasiphae, & the Wooden Cow,House of the Vettii, Pompeii.

Douris. Death of Pentheus. c. 480 BC.

Fiorentino, Rosso. The Contest of the Pierides. c. 16th century.

Paul Rubens, Peter. The Fall of Icarus. 1636.

Van Mander, Karel. The Challenge of the Pierides. c. 1600.