The Darwinian revolution has changed the course of science in many areas. Charles Darwin was an English naturalist and who is most famous for contributing to the science of evolution. He was one of the first in his field to determine that all species of life evolved from common ancestors. He theorized natural selection in which evolution is the result of survival of the fittest. He is also credited with theorizing descent with modification. Descent with modification is essentially the passing of traits from parents to offspring. Due to his contributions to evolutionary science and biology as a whole Darwin is widely celebrated today. His theories of evolution by natural selection and descent with modification are based on the essential theory of population thinking. Population thinking essentially believes differentiation within a species is a positive. Population thinking recognizes that variation the mechanism which allows for evolution and adaptation. Population genetics is the modern day result of population thinking, thus it is one of many branches of biology which largely has Charles Darwin to thank for its eventual creation.

Put simply, population genetics is the study of genetic variation within a species. Population genetics specifically involves the examination of adaptation, speciation, and population structure. Population genetics recognizes the importance of variation within a population and the fact that natural selection will only cause evolution if there is genetic variation within a population. Part of the success of population thinking and the field of population genetics is the fact that it opposes typological thinking. Typological thinking essentially views variance and differentiation within a species as imperfection. This view of genetic variance as abnormal can be extremely detrimental. While the importance of variance and population thinking mainly apply to genomics, I believe that they can also be easily applied to many modern social issues. Similarly, typological thinking can be hazardous not just in terms of genetics, but sociologically as well.

Modern western cultures are widely acknowledged as individualistic cultures. Individualistic cultures place importance on individualism. This means that societies stress the needs of individuals over the needs of a group as a whole. In individualistic cultures, people are seen as being more independent and autonomous. Thus individual rights are stressed, people tend to be self-reliant, independence is highly regarded, and being dependent upon other people may actually be seen as shameful. These facets of individualistic cultures have been seen for a long time across many nations, especially in North America and Western Europe. As time goes on aspects of individualistic culture are seeping into many other nations, and more collective cultures are shifting their values to include more individualistic features. In addition, traditionally individualistic cultures are growing as well by placing more and more importance on accepting individualism and differences. Social acceptance and equality are topics of momentous importance across the world today. The ability of individuals to be more accepting of everything from differing interests, to differing opinions, to differing races, to differing genders, to differing sexual orientations is of the utmost importance. Essentially, typological thinking is being eliminated in society. In this way the Darwinian revolution has carried over inadvertently into not just evolutionary science, biology, and genetic science, but also into different means of sociological thinking.