The nationalist movement in Indonesia traces its roots to a rebellion against colonial rule. In the beginning of the 20th century, the first nationalist group was created which rebelled against the colonial rule in favor of a true national identity which was separate from the colonial rule of the western European countries which Indonesia was previously the subject of. The professor compared the revolution to an oil lamp, which needs to be ignited by the people. He used the metaphor to incite rebellion against the colonial rule which he desired to be overthrown. This social revolution created wide sweeping changes within the country. It allowed the people to change the way that they dressed, to learn new languages, and to being their national awakening. This revolution has often been set in the context of World War One, and connected to that, but the lecturer argued that the revolution began before the start of World War One. This is an interesting argument, as it is difficult to determine what came first, as there is no obvious direct correlation between world war one and the Indonesian social revolution. However, the war would certainly have triggered changes within the society, as people become disenfranchised with the ways of Western Europe through watching them at war. As I have found with many of these lectures, I leave with more questions than when I arrive. Having known very little about the origin of anything from the universe to Italian Poetry or Novel Writing, I am repeatedly exposed to a new corner of the world which I know little to nothing about. In the brief time, it is impossible to learn the origins of anything to a satisfactory level. However, opening up these corners of the world, and shedding a bit of light on them makes me more curious, and I find myself wondering about the finer points of origins often. Can we prove an origin, or separate it from an evolution? If we can prove that it happened, but we can’t prove how or why, then is this finding really significant? Does investigating this idea bring us more answers or will it lead to more questions, as the brief lecture on it has for me? How is is possible to define the first novel except by the definition used at the time when it was written? Is it possible to define the boundaries between poetry and music, or does doing so pigeon-hole a broad art form into a claustrophobically tight academic category? It was fascinating to learn so much about both a topic that I was previously very uninformed about. It is also interesting to consider the idea of nations as a modern construct. The idea of the nation is not an age old concept, but rather a modern political concept. He cited contemporary examples of different national identity crises. The fight in Catalonia over independence from greater Spain is one that is a very interesting example of the difficulty of drawing the lines between cultures and countries and regions. Most of these boundaries were simply drawn by whoever was in power, in the case of Indonesia, the colonizers.