Author: Madeline Taylor

Are We All Revolutionary?

The concepts presented by Bruno Latour are compelling and also verge on insulting to the main theme of this course and many speakers we have heard from thus far. Latour is widely known and celebrated for his work We Have Never Been Modern. In this book, Latour investigates modernity, and the notion that most cutting edge modern movements seem to create a distinct divide between nature and culture. Based on the fact that many important issues today such as global warming, the HIV/AIDS pandemic, contemporary biotechnologies, and many others actually amalgamate many different facets of both nature and culture such as politics, science, and popular and specialist discourse. He uses this to argue that the divide between nature and culture is no longer possible. He even goes on to argue that this divide may have never fully been possible. He argues that the majority of great scientific, political and other discoveries that we have spent this entire course discussing as revolutions were not in fact that revolutionary after all. However, I personally feel that Latour’s argument refutes the name of Keith Peterson’s talk “WE HAVE NEVER BEEN REVOLUTIONARY.”

Latour Largely argues that all of the topics that we consider to be our modern revolutions are not just for those that specialize in those particular fields. He argues that they combine politics and science and modern technology, as specialists issues often overlap with public issues. Take the example of HIV/AIDS or Global Warming or Alzheimer’s or Biotechnology. These are fields that affect the public across the world. They are not explicitly confined to the minds of specialists. Such issues are, and have always been, ones that affect human kind regardless of whether or not someone specializes in research on those areas . However, with the interconnectedness of technology and society today,  discourse surrounding in such fields permeating through the public regardless of their class, education, occupation, race, or geographic location is unavoidable. This is the basis of Latour’s argument that we have never been modern, or rather that we have never been revolutionary. Contrarily, I believe that this argument truly supports the notion that we are all in fact revolutionary.

To echo Latour, whatever walls stood to divide nature and society in the past have now been torn down. In current times any part of the public has the opportunity to be a part of the fight and study against global warming, any part of the public has the opportunity to raise awareness for cancer or to educate themselves about cancer and modern cancer research through a variety of media outlets such as news, documentaries, scholarly journals, articles, and books. When you look at Latour’s argument from this angle, you could argue that the divide between nature and society being eliminated has not delegitimized revolutions altogether, but rather it has simply made revolutions more inclusive. The involvement of the public in specialist areas has actually served to allow this entire course on revolutions to take place. We are not necessarily specialists, but in this course we have been able to learn more about and in our own way become a part of a variety of different revolutions both past and present. Rather than interpreting Latour’s argument to mean that we have never been revolutionary, I construe it to mean that we have all become revolutionary.

Societal and Political Movements Past and Present

The Haitian Revolution refers to the influential anti-slavery rebellion in the former French colony of Santo Domingue, now known as Haiti. The revolution took place between the years of 1791 and 1804, and was a war waged by slaves and some free peoples against French authority. Slaves self-liberated and destroyed the institution of slavery in their colony which eventually led to the foundation of Haiti as a sovereign state. The Haitian slave revolution was the only slave revolution to ever result in the founding of a new state which would be free from slavery, and it was the largest slave insurrection since Spartacus.

It is clear that the Haitian Revolution was highly significant and impactful, although it was not widely recognized and studied until the past few decades. One may ask then, why is it that the Haitian Revolution is marginally forgotten. Other revolutions such as the American and French Revolutions are extensively documented in history and studied across the globe. The American Revolution was a political revolution that took place from 1765 to 1783. In this revolution, American Colonists called to become a sovereign state, seceding from British parliamentary rule. They fought against taxation by the British when there were no British representatives in their colonies. Their fight against the British rule led to the creation of the United States of America. The United States of America developed into a world superpower and was arguably the strongest force in the world throughout the 1900s. The United States, referred to as the free world, quickly became a symbol for freedom and democracy. The United States still remains one of the most influential and powerful nations in the world, and a symbol of democracy that many revolutionized nations in the twentieth century have based their own constitutions upon.

One of the other most significant and widely celebrated revolutions, the French Revolution, followed the American Revolution as it took place between the years of 1789 and 1799. It was marked by widespread political and social unrest which led to the overthrow of the monarchy and established a republic. As was the American Revolution, the French  Revolution was highly influential. The two together seemed to spark a global deterioration of absolute monarchies. The French Revolution is regarded by some as the most influential event in all of history.

Why then, was the Haitian Revolution, in comparison, forgotten? It can be argued that the Haitian Revolution was even more influential than some other revolutions such as the French or American revolutions on the grounds that the Haitian Revolution was also an anti-slavery movement that preceded many anti-slavery campaigns around the world. The Haitian Revolution was arguable before its time and went unremembered. I wonder what implications this has for social and political movements today? Will important social movements in the United States and other areas go widely forgotten? Part of me believes that it is primarily a problem of location. Often times people forget that societal and political movements happen in less influential nations as well. Years down the road will we remember all of the nations that legalized gay marriage before the United States? Because the United States, and certain other influential nations are such super powers their contributions to societal and political movements are the ones that will be remembered even if they were not exactly the pioneers of such movements.

Acknowledgement, Acceptance, and Learning From Our Past

The Bolzano Victory Monument is a monument in Bolzano which is in Northern Italy. It was created under orders from Marcello Piacentini. The creation of this monument also signified the destruction of the Austrian Kaiserjager monument. The Kaiserjager monument was torn down and the Bolzano Victory Monument replaced it. This prominent symbol and reminder of fascism remained a source of tension between Italian and German people in Bolzano and surrounding areas. The were even multiple attempts at destroying the monument through bombing. It was fenced off in the 1970s in attempts to prevent its destruction.

In 2014 the monument was reopened to the public in the form of an exhibition called “BZ ’18-’45: one monument, one city, two dictatorships.” The monument highlights important historical information as it discusses happenings within the 20 years of fascist rule as well as happenings from the period of Nazi occupation. It discusses both key national and international events that took place within each of the two time periods. The exhibit also discusses radical new urban reform plans for the area. The plan essentially endeavors to create an entirely new city of Bolzano which is set to include a new major industrial zone. The entire exhibit as well as the Bolzano revitalization projects seek to entice more Italians from other regions to visit the Bolzano area.

Most importantly the monument exhibition seeks to confront the difficulties both past and present between the German and Italian members of the Bolzano community. This is an extremely important discourse which has been a long time coming. This monument has been transformed from a symbol of fascism with an overarchingly negative connotation to an opportunity for deeper learning of understanding.

I think that the new exhibition BZ ’18-’45: one monument, one city, two dictatorships at the Bolzano Monument is a critical reminder to us all that the past is not something to be pushed under the rug, but rather something that we must shed light upon and attempt to learn from. This is a common theme seen in many monuments around the world. 9/11 memorials and monuments and exhibits are being constructed around the nation because we as a society understand the importance of not only remembering positive parts of our history but the negative parts as well. The Vietnam War Memorial in Washington, D.C.  is a superb example of this. For an extensive period, people attempted to push the Vietnam War out of our conscious memories, but this monument underscores the importance of not only recognizing the soldiers who fought in the war, but also the important losses, downfalls, and poor decisions of our nation. We must not only create monuments to remember great people and achievements, but to remember the criticized moments of our history as well. For example, eventually there will probably be more significant exhibits, memorials and monuments remembering the genocide that the United States waged against the indigenous people of our country, the Native Americans. Not only do people in the United States detach themselves from something so far in the past, but we are dispassionate about it and do not seem to endeavor to educate ourselves about the potential past wrongdoings of our nation. The Bolzano Monument shows the importance of not burying our past, but unearthing for all to see and learn from.

Revolutionary Methods for Obtaining and Interpreting Data

The enlightenment period was was an era which was characterized by the search for groundbreaking knowledge and for a better understanding of the world.  It is sometimes referred to as the age of reason, and it took place throughout the eighteenth century across Western Europe, England, and the American colonies. In this period new ideas and ways of thinking were celebrated  in the fields of science, politics, literature, and philosophy.  One of the most important pieces of this revolution which goes somewhat taken for granted and under appreciated is the data revolution. This data revolution entailed major advancements in the way that we gather and record empirical data and subsequently interpret such data.

One of the most meaningful contributors to this revolution was Francis Bacon. Bacon was an English philosopher, statesman, scientist, and author. He was a strong presence advocating for the scientific revolution, and has even been referred to as the father of empiricism. He placed great importance on careful observations in nature using skeptical methods. He wanted to develop a method for discerning the truthfulness of knowledge. He placed importance on being mindful of the fact that all five human sensory experiences can be incorrectly interpreted. In order to determine whether our sensory experiences were based in truth or not, Bacon asserted the necessity of scientific experiments. Although his model for scientific research have been altered over the years the general principles of skepticism and experiment that he employed still have a strong hold in the scientific process that is used in modern science. He contended that as humans we must doubt things before assuming their veracity. He suggested that scientists must manipulate nature in attempts to prove their own hypotheses incorrect. The general importance he placed on thorough questioning in the gathering of data fosters the scientific method we use today.

Another important figure in the data revolution was Robert Hooke, an English natural philosopher. Robert Hooke was the curator of experiments and a member of the council of the Royal Society. The Royal Society was an organization that served to promote science, recognize excellence in science, support outstanding science, and provide support for education around science. He also wrote an extremely influential book called Micrographia which discussed his new compound microscope and the discoveries he was capable of making with it. He improved previous models of the microscope through the addition of a screw operated focusing mechanism as well as a water lens and light to improve focusing.  With these additions he was able to discover the first microorganisms and plant cells. His discoveries were the basis for modern day microbiology, nanotechnology, and quantum physics. His contributions to such scientific instruments forever changed the way that data was acquired and the kinds of data that scientists were capable of acquiring.

The contributions of individuals like Francis Bacon and Robert Hooke have shaped the science that we know today. The scientific method is taught in the most basic of science courses and serves as the basis for all future scientific endeavors. It is something that is largely taken for granted now that our methods for research and data collection are so advanced. Similarly, microscopes are one of the most basic instruments used in scientific research now that we have much more sophisticated and technologically advanced instruments of observation. The advanced means of gathering, observing, and analyzing data that we have today are widely taken for granted, but would not exist today if it were not for the revolutionary work of enlightened individuals like Francis Bacon and Robert Hooke.

The Darwinian revolution has changed the course of science in many areas. Charles Darwin was an English naturalist and who is most famous for contributing to the science of evolution. He was one of the first in his field to determine that all species of life evolved from common ancestors. He theorized natural selection in which evolution is the result of survival of the fittest. He is also credited with theorizing descent with modification. Descent with modification is essentially the passing of traits from parents to offspring. Due to his contributions to evolutionary science and biology as a whole Darwin is widely celebrated today. His theories of evolution by natural selection and descent with modification are based on the essential theory of population thinking. Population thinking essentially believes differentiation within a species is a positive. Population thinking recognizes that variation the mechanism which allows for evolution and adaptation. Population genetics is the modern day result of population thinking, thus it is one of many branches of biology which largely has Charles Darwin to thank for its eventual creation.

Put simply, population genetics is the study of genetic variation within a species. Population genetics specifically involves the examination of adaptation, speciation, and population structure. Population genetics recognizes the importance of variation within a population and the fact that natural selection will only cause evolution if there is genetic variation within a population. Part of the success of population thinking and the field of population genetics is the fact that it opposes typological thinking. Typological thinking essentially views variance and differentiation within a species as imperfection. This view of genetic variance as abnormal can be extremely detrimental. While the importance of variance and population thinking mainly apply to genomics, I believe that they can also be easily applied to many modern social issues. Similarly, typological thinking can be hazardous not just in terms of genetics, but sociologically as well.

Modern western cultures are widely acknowledged as individualistic cultures. Individualistic cultures place importance on individualism. This means that societies stress the needs of individuals over the needs of a group as a whole. In individualistic cultures, people are seen as being more independent and autonomous. Thus individual rights are stressed, people tend to be self-reliant, independence is highly regarded, and being dependent upon other people may actually be seen as shameful. These facets of individualistic cultures have been seen for a long time across many nations, especially in North America and Western Europe. As time goes on aspects of individualistic culture are seeping into many other nations, and more collective cultures are shifting their values to include more individualistic features. In addition, traditionally individualistic cultures are growing as well by placing more and more importance on accepting individualism and differences. Social acceptance and equality are topics of momentous importance across the world today. The ability of individuals to be more accepting of everything from differing interests, to differing opinions, to differing races, to differing genders, to differing sexual orientations is of the utmost importance. Essentially, typological thinking is being eliminated in society. In this way the Darwinian revolution has carried over inadvertently into not just evolutionary science, biology, and genetic science, but also into different means of sociological thinking.

Climate Science: A Revolution Contingent Upon Past Revolutions

Many revolutions would not reach the pinnacles that they have in modern times without revolutions which preceded them. This is very much the case in the revolution of science in climate change. The climate change revolution that is so widely publicized. Climate change science has been around since the 19th century and is now well established.  It is often taken for granted that the revolution in climate change science that we are in the midst of today was prefaced by revolutions in the fields of geology, physics, and chemistry.  The revolutions in all of these fields were conducted by many different intellectuals.

The beginnings of climate change science were really rooted in the curiosity about the Earth’s surface temperature. A key participant in the investigation of this curiosity was a man named Jean Baptiste Fourier who was specifically interested in why the Earth was the temperature that it was. Fourier was a physicist, and his work mainly revolved around the transfer of heat from one object to another. Continually, in his pursuit of discovering why the Earth was the temperature that it was he realized that the Earth was much warmer than it should be based on its size and distance from the sun. He had multiple theories on why that might be, but his most significant consideration was the possibility of Earth’s atmosphere might act as an insulator. Although he never referred to it as such, this proposal was one of the first recognitions of the greenhouse effect.

Another quite significant physicist of the nineteenth century was John Tyndall. He conducted radiant-heat experiments and furthered knowledge on the heat absorptive powers of gasses. This lead to the revolutionary discovery of atmospheric composition of Earth. He found that of the gasses in Earth’s atmosphere water vapor was the most important in the processes of controlling and maintaining Earth’s surface temperature. These discoveries eventually furthered the revolutionary knowledge of the greenhouse effect which is widely focused on in modern day climate science.

Without the previous revolutions in physics, geology, chemistry and atmospheric science orchestrated by individuals like Fourier and Tyndall, climate science would not have reached the heights it has. Today one of the most revolutionary tools in climate science is satellite measurements. With modern science we can determine the atmospheric temperature at different altitudes, as well as sea levels and land surface temperatures. For example, satellite measurements have revealed the fact that the stratosphere in Earth’s atmosphere is cooling, and the troposphere in Earth’s atmosphere is heating. Another consequential apparatus of modern climate science used to monitor the state of the Earth’s environment is ARGO robotic subversive floats. These are floats that freely drift on the oceans surface and continually measure the ocean’s temperature and salinity. This is a revolution in oceanography and has shown that the heat content of the ocean is quite steadily rising. These sorts of inferences are key in determining the consequences of global warming and their severity. It is evident that climate science has developed into an exceptionally impactful area of science. It is the focus of governmental policy in the United States as well as Internationally. All of these achievements and knowledge in the field, however, would not be possible if it were not for the revolutionary achievements of scientists that came before  them in the field of geology, physics, and chemistry.

Darwinian Revolution and Questions to Follow

Charles Darwin was an English naturalist and who is most famous for contributing to the science of evolution. He came to the conclusion that all of the species of life that we observe today evolved from common ancestors. He, along with Alfred Russel Wallace, introduced the theory of natural selection in which evolution is the result of survival of the fittest. Due to his contributions to evolutionary science Darwin is widely celebrated today. There are cities, streets, mountains and colleges all in his name. There are mugs, posters, and other memorabilia in honor of Darwin, and even people with tattoos of Darwin. He has become a somewhat romanticized figure. When someone thinks of evolution they almost certainly will think of Darwin. He has become the face of evolution and has essentially been crowned as the founding father of the science of evolution. However, regardless of whatever fame Darwin has achieved through his post-mortem romanticization his theories of natural selection supporting evolutionary science created significant controversy.

In the 1850s reception of a theory which essentially denied the existence of a divine creator was bound to cause dissension. This was blasphemous in the eyes of many clerical individuals. Many people were not ready to abandon their creationist views and adopt this new evolutionary science. As a result, Darwin received many hostile comments progressing to claim he would never be allowed to enter heavens gates. Interestingly, even those individuals who did read and appreciate Darwin’s work were perplexed by the concept of there being a divine creation of life on Earth, and then the natural evolution that followed. People meshed religious views and scientific ones to believe that the creator created and then natural science took over from there. These are questions that still trouble people today.

Another interesting descendant of Darwin’s evolution by natural selection is eugenics. Eugenics itself is extremely controversial. It is a so-called science which seeks to improve the human race through breeding. Eugenics essentially seeks to preserve higher qualities and traits in the human race and eliminate undesirable ones. The means in which eugenics propose this is done is through artificial selection, or preventing the sick, weak, or untalented from reproducing. The most well known case of eugenic “science” was in Hitler’s Nazi Germany where those who were not healthy Aryans were eliminated because they were seen as a burden on the state. Many people were sterilized, and many who were sick, crippled, mentally handicapped, or elderly were simply killed. These practices, although in no way endorsed by Darwin, were offshoots of his theory of evolution by means of natural selection. They offer an example of the differing effects that Darwin’s revolution had. Darwin’s theory of natural selection shaped the foundation of evolutionary science to come. His work is widely accepted and extensively celebrated, yet Darwin also provides a clear example of the ways in which revolutionary thinking can not only be negatively received at the start, but how revolutionary thinking can also lead to adverse theories. The Darwinian revolution was by no means perfect, but then again no revolution is.

 

The Role of Artists in Revolutions

Khalid Albaih is a Romanian born political cartoonist. He uses the internet and various social medias including Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram, as well as a variety of other blogs and websites, as platforms for his work. He lives in Qatar and his work generally focuses on issues within the Arab world. Albaih has drawn countless cartoons and in the process inspired commotion and dissatisfaction throughout the Arab community. His works have been located on the internet and transformed and recreated into graffiti and posters in various Arab nations including Sudan, Yemen, and Egypt. He views his digital cartoons as a part of a monumental virtual, and artistic, revolution.

Albaih and his virtual revolution is habitually connected to the most significant revolution of recent times within the Arab world which is referred to as Arab Spring. The Arab Spring was essentially a series of demonstrations across many Arab nations; there were protests both violent and non-violent. Significant uprisings were seen in Syria, Libya, Yemen, Egypt, Bahrain, Algeria, Iraq and more. A major basis for the rebellious activities carried out in Arab Spring was a call for democracy. Democratic revolutions across time and space can be linked in many ways. I would specifically like to link the revolutions affiliated with Arab Spring to the democratization of Latin America.

Latin America is a region which has for years been widely plagued by a seemingly endless struggle for democracy. Nations such as Chile, Argentina, Brazil, and many more have experienced both the creation and breakdown of democratic institutions. A commonality between all of these transitions into democratic rule, as well as many other transitions in other regions and during other time periods, is that they were so often propelled, at least in part, by more artistic revolutions. A great deal of transitions to democracy originated in nations that were under authoritarian rule.  For example, Chile was overthrown by a military coup in the year 1973 and remained under that rule, officially, until 1989. The process of this passage to democratic rule in Chile was lengthy, arduous, and demanded the involvement of many different actors. Though there is the ever significant role of elite leaders within the military, government (or what is there left), and economy, there is also an equal, and arguably more important, role of the opposition. In transitions to democracy there must always be that first person or group to initiate a rebellion. Time and time again artists, intellectuals, or singers have been the front runners of the opposition. These people hold a momentous position of untouchability. A repressive government will have no trouble kidnapping, killing, or torturing any other civilian in the working class, but a more prominent figure such as an artist would cause much more uproar if they disappeared in the night. From this standpoint artists possess the power of speaking out against an unjust government and demanding change. Whether it be a singer incorporating indirect calls for change in the lyrics of a song or an artist such as Albaih himself allowing for his art to embody such messages; these public condemnations of unjust circumstances summon for the assemblage and mobilization of the masses. This is what leads to change. Just as so many artists before him have, Khalid Albaih is proving that speaking out by means of art is a way of evoking change. Whether his virtual revolution takes 5 years, 10 years, or 500 years history has proved that, although it may be tedious, it will eventually succeed.

“Darkness” by Lord Byron: A Historical Account and Apocalyptic Prophecy

The Tambora Revolution refers to the eruption of Mount Tambora in the year 1815 in what is present day Indonesia. It was one of the most massive eruptions ever recorded, and the magnitude of its effects were monumental. Destruction on the island itself was obvious, but the aftermath was not restricted to just Indonesia. The eruption disrupted global temperatures causing what was referred to as the “Year Without a Summer.” There was a lack a perpetual fog and widespread rain leading to crop failure and widespread famine. The effects were felt most heavily in Europe where the prices of bread rose significantly leaving many people incapable of affording it. This then led to widespread riots which included the burning of bakeries to protest the cost inflation. Any sort of revolution is bound to be accompanied by an outpouring of new art, science, and texts. This catastrophe specifically was the topic of much literature. One of the most significant written works on the phenomenon was a poem written by Lord Byron which was called “Darkness.”

In the poem the speaker begins by referring to the events he was to describe as a “dream”  but “not all a dream” (line 1). This goes to show the widespread reaction to the summer that never was; people were astounded as they felt they were living in some sort of odd contrived alternate universe in which summer was bitter and inclement. The poem continues to describe a cold, gloomy Earth where men turned to survival instincts in this extended time of darkness and despair. Birds fell from the sky, snakes lost their venom, food supplies run out, humans turn to scavengers and eventually to cannibals. By the end of the poem this has led to the extinction of man kind and the Earth becomes a barren rock.

The poem “Darkness” was originally interpreted as a more stereotypical presentation of apocalyptic conjectures. However upon a deeper look into historical context it is clear that the poem was at least moderately influenced by the derangement that ensued during the “Year Without a Summer.” In this way it is evident that maybe what Byron was doing in “Darkness” was drawing upon his personal encounter with apocalyptic conditions in order to write a prophetic poem about the possibility of a future doomsday event. The apocalyptic theme within the poem is furthered through the idea of this darkness as an equalizer between men as would be expected with the end of man kind. The catastrophe brings both the wealthy royals and the poor peasants to the point of starvation eliminating class distinction and social hierarchies. The fact that the destruction described in the poem does not simply affect the human race, but animals as well, also supports apocalyptic notions. Another final aspect supporting the anticipatory sense of the poem was the concept of the end of war. The only way that mankind could realistically cease all forms of fighting would be with the end of the world altogether. In these ways Byron uses his own experience in suffering through the summer of 1816  to foresee the prospective downfall of the human race (if it were ever to occur).

The fact that the Tambora eruption led to a flood of literature describing the exact events of the eruption and the climate changes that followed is impressive in itself. The fact that it also led to individuals contemplating the destruction of the Earth and life as we know it altogether is astounding. The historical yet predictive nature of the poem “Darkness” written by Lord Byron in 1816 speaks to the true enormity of the aftermath of the eruption of Mount Tambora. The poem “Darkness” is highly representative of the Tambora Revolution itself.

Personal Scientific Revolutions

How scientific was the Scientific Revolution? This is a question highly rooted in subjectivity. Society today has a wildly different basis for what qualifies something as scientific than society in the 16th and 17th centuries did. Today, words swirling in the mind of someone contemplating what it is to be scientific might include predictability, observation, measurement, experiment, and so on. However, in the 16th and 17th centuries the standards for qualifying as scientific were entirely different. For example, Copernicus argued that the sun deserved to be the center solely based on its magnificence. This may not meet present day standards for a scientific observation, but in the day and time when that argument was vocalized it was of adequate rationale. So who are we to argue today, 400 years later, that the Scientific Revolution was not, in fact, that scientific? The leaders of the Scientific Revolution were judging their feats by their own standards. This is a takeaway for any and all types of revolutions. It is not necessary to judge a scientific revolution by current or popular standards in order to gauge the significance of said revolution. To be candid, the Scientific Revolution was a metaphor for an exceptional change which gave rise to space for new thought and understanding. This leads me to believe that many transformations, so long as they are judged by the standards of those involved, can also qualify as revolutions. More specifically I believe that people can have their own individual scientific revolutions.

 

Galileo Galilei said, “The book of nature is written in the language of mathematics.” For some people this is not the case. For some individuals the book of their nature is not written in mathematics, but perhaps it is written in verse or in dance or in psyche. For some individuals, their scientific revolution would be based in the realm of self discovery or self improvement rather than in mathematics or technology. I believe that it is possible for an individual to have a personal scientific revolution. Perhaps a college student replaces poor study habits with a newfound dedication to their education. Perhaps someone struggling with their health restructures their value system to situate their diet and exercise as a top priority. Perhaps an individual internally battling a longstanding mental health disorder finally seeks treatment. Take actress Charlize Theron, who watched her mother kill her abusive father in an act of self defense at age 15, for example. She left South Africa at a young age and turned all of the negativity surrounding her childhood life around when she persevered through struggle and made a career for herself in acting.  Take Malcolm X, who was orphaned and went to prison at a young age, for example. He found religion and became a national leader in the civil rights movement. I believe that these people, and all people, are capable of their own scientific revolution. They are capable of monumental, dramatic, and important transformation. There are many ways to interpret something as scientific, and in the case of a revolution I believe that so long as it fits the standards of scientific set by the individuals responsible for the revolution, then it constitutes a form of scientific revolution.